1 + 1 = 3
For example, consider a single line -- a single graphic element. Now consider two parallel lines. Here we have at least three graphical elements, each of the lines and the space between them. This 1 + 1 = 3 or more effect is important, and most of the time, that surplus visual activity is non-information, noise, and clutter. A particularly common example of 1 + 1 = 3 or more is boxes around text.